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Beyond Face Value: Depictions of Slavery in Confederate Currency

Bibliography and Web Resources

The following list of sources on historic currency and related topics is intended only as a guide for further research.


  • Bieciuk, Hank and H. G. “Bill” Corbin. Texas Confederate County Notes and Private Scrip. N.p., 1961.
  • Bradbeer, William West. Confederate and Southern State Currency. Mt. Vernon, NY, 1915.
  • Chase, Phillip H. Confederate Treasury Notes: The Paper Money of the Confederate States of America, 1861–1865. N.p., 1947.
  • Clark, H. Nichols B. Francis W. Edmonds, American Master in the Dutch Tradition. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.
  • Criswell, Grover, D. B. Ball, and H. Shull. Comprehensive Catalog of Confederate Paper Money. Port Clinton, OH: BNR Press, 1996.
  • Criswell, Grover C. Confederate and Southern States Currency. Citra, FL: Criswell’s Publications, 1992.
  • Davies, Glyn. History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1996.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Allegorical Representations. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1994.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Denominations. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1988.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About History. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1990.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Indians. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1991.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Portraits. Rehobath, MA: R.H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1996.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Portraits II. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1997.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Territories. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1992.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Vignettes. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1995.
  • Durand, Roger H. Interesting Notes About Vignettes II. Rehobath, MA: R. H. Durand & Co., Ltd., 1996.
  • Fuller, Claud E. Confederate Currency and Stamps, 1861–1865. N.p., 1949.
  • Galbraith, John Kenneth. Money: Whence It Came, Where It Went. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1995.
  • Hall, James. Dictionary of Subjects and Symbols in Art. London: John Murray Ltd., 1984.
  • Hummell, Jeffry Rogers. Emancipating Slaves, Enslaving Free Men. Chicago: Open Court, 1996.
  • Johnson, E. A. J. and Herman E. Kroos. The Origins and Development of the American Economy: An Introduction to Economics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1953.
  • Kelly, Don C. National Bank Notes: A Guide with Prices. Oxford, OH: The Paper Money Institute, Inc., 1985.
  • Krooss, Herman Edward. American Economic Development: The Progress of a Business Civilization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974.
  • Krooss, Herman Edward. Documentary History of Banking and Currency in the United States. New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1969.
  • McElroy, Guy C.Facing History: The Black Image in American Art. Washington, DC: Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1990.
  • Monestier, Martin. The Art of Paper Currency. New York: Quartet Books, 1983.
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Oxford History of the American People. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • Muscalus, John Anthony. An Index of State Bank Notes that Illustrate Characters and Events. Bridgeport, PA, 1938.
  • Neely, Mark E, Mark E., Harold Holzer, and Gabor S. Boritt. The Confederate Image: Prints of the Lost Cause. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.
  • Parrish, T. Michael and Robert M. Willingham, Jr. Confederate Imprints: A Bibliography of Southern Publications from Secession to Surrender. Austin, TX: Jenkins Publishing Co., 1987.
  • Professional Currency Dealers Association Committee on Education and Gene Hessler. Collecting U.S. Obsolete Currency. Milwaukee: Professional Currency Dealers Association, 1991.
  • Shade, William G. Banks or No Banks: The Money Issue in Western Politics, 1832–1865. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1972.
  • Shafer, Neil. Let’s Collect Paper Money! An Introduction to the Exciting Hobby of Collecting Paper Money in the World. Racine, WI: Western Publishing Company, Inc., 1976.
  • Slabaugh, Arlie R. Confederate States Paper Money. Iola, WI: Krause Publications, 1961, 3rd ed.
  • Studenski, Paul. Financial History of the United States: Fiscal, Monetary, Banking, and Tariff, Including Financial Administration and State and Local Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.
  • Symons, Edward L., Jr., and James J. White. Banking Law. N.p., 1984.
  • Werlich, Robert. Fully Illustrated Catalogue of United States, Canadian, and Confederate Currency. N.p., 1976.
  • Wilkinson, John. The Narrative of a Blockade Runner. New York: Sheldon & Co., 1877.
  • Wilson, Charles R., and W. Ferris, eds. Encyclopedia of Southern Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
  • Wishnietsky, Benjamin. Confederate Patriotic Covers and Their Uses. North Miami, FL: David G. Phillips Publishing Co., Inc., 1991.


  • “Notices of Other Recent Publications.” American Historical Review 45 (1940): 440–95.
  • Anderson, George L. “The South and Problems of Post–Civil War Finance.” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 181–95.
  • Chandler, Aldred D., Jr. “Dupont, Dahlgren, and the Civil War Nitre Shortage.” Military Affairs 13 (1949): 142–9.
  • Colbourn, H. Trevor. “Madison Eulogized.” William and Mary Quarterly 8 (1951): 108–19.
  • Dale, Edward Everett. “The Cherokees in the Confederacy.” Journal of Southern History 9 (1943): 159–85.
  • Dodge, David. “Domestic Economy in the Confederacy.” Atlantic Monthly 58 (August 1886): 229–42.
  • Dorris, J. T. “Pardon Seekers and Brokers: A Sequel of Appomattox.” Journal of Southern History 1 (1935): 276–92.
  • Fish, Carl Russell. “The German Indemnity and the South.” American Historical Review 26 (1921): 489–90.
  • Krause, Barry. “Collecting Confederate Currency.” Antiques & Collecting Magazine 100 (1995): 43–6.
  • Lerner, Eugene M. “The Monetary and Fiscal Programs of the Confederate Government.” Journal of Political Economy 62 (1954): 506–22.
  • Mitchell, Wesley C. “The Value of Greenbacks During the Civil War.” Journal of Political Economy 6 (1898): 139–67.
  • Pecquet, Gary M. “Money in the Trans-Mississippi.” Explorations in Economic History 24 (1987): 218–43.
  • Phillips, Ulrich B. “Plantations with Slave Labor and Free.” American Historical Review 30 (1925): 738–53.
  • Sellers, James L. “An Interpretation of Civil War Finance.” American Historical Review 30 (1925): 282–97.
  • Shelton, William A. “The Income Tax Georgia.” Journal of Political Economy 18 (1910): 610–27.
  • Windam, William T. “The Problem of Supply in the Trans-Mississippi Confederacy.” Journal of Southern History 27 (1961): 149–68.
  • Wright, Gordon. “Economic Conditions in the Confederacy as Seen by the French Consuls.” Journal of Southern History 7 (1941): 195–214.

Web Sites

American Monetary Institute

American Numismatic Association (Coins and Paper Money Collectors)

A Brief History of Central Banking in the United States

Brief History of Our Nation’s Paper Money

Bureau of Engraving and Printing

Economic History Web Sites

Leslie Brock Center for the Study of Colonial Currency

Money: U.S. History of Money and Banking

Museum of American Financial History

Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc.

U.S. Mint