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An Eye of Silver: The Life and Times of Andrew D. Lytle

An Eye of Silver
The Life and Times of Andrew D. Lytle

Andrew D. Lytle (1858-1917) Baton Rouge Photographer

Andrew D. Lytle (1858-1917) Baton Rouge Photographer

“An Eye of Silver: The Life and Times of Andrew D. Lytle, Baton Rouge Photographer, 1858 – 1917″ presents an expanded digital version of the physical exhibition held in Hill Memorial Library at Louisiana State University, 12 June through 01 September, 2000. Published on the Web, February 2003, this digital exhibition includes copies of photographs created by Andrew David Lytle and other materials related to his life and times in Baton Rouge.

Curated by Mark E. Martin, Image Resources Processing Archivist Edited by Elaine Smyth, Curator of Special Collections
Electronic design by Mark E. Martin and Marta S. Barillas
Exhibit Technician: Mark E. Martin
Published on the Web, February 2003
Updated, October 2011

Introduction

On 16 September 1839, D. W. Seager created the first successful daguerreotype in the western hemisphere using the methods of the Frenchman L. J. M. Daguerre. Less than a year later, Jules Lion, native of France and a free man of color, became the first person to exhibit daguerreotypes in New Orleans. Within months another Frenchman and New Orleanian, J. B. Pointel du Portail, came to Baton Rouge to hold the first-ever exhibit of photographic images. The public’s reception of these images guaranteed a long, happy life for photography in the city.

Eighteen years later, Andrew David Lytle, a native of Ohio and journeyman photographer, came through Baton Rouge while traveling the South as an itinerant photographer. Lytle settled in Baton Rouge in 1860, established his photographic studio on Main Street, and began what would turn out to be more than fifty years of photographing the life and times of this small river city. Over the course of those years Lytle would find himself in the right place at the right time to create images of the Union capture and occupation of Baton Rouge, construction of river levees, social events of great importance, and the occasional disaster.

Lytle would rise from an unknown itinerant photographer to become a relatively wealthy member of local society with ties to social organizations, civic organizations, and other local families. He would also branch out into documentary photography for the state, particularly prison life and levee construction. Lytle’s work, ranging from formal portraiture to documentary images, nature scenes to casual family ‘snapshots,’ shows his ability to work both in the studio and outdoors.

Andrew would also suffer great personal loss. The death of his first son in Baton Rouge, 9 March 1859, may have been a factor in choosing to settle here. His second son, third son, and grandson would all precede him in death, as would his wife. Only in the waning years of his life would his name and work spread beyond Louisiana with the publication of some of his Civil War images in the 1911 publication The Photographic History of the Civil War.

Arrival and Early Days in Baton Rouge

Andrew David Lytle, Sr. (b. 4 April 1834) began his career as a photographer in the mid-1850s in Ohio where he may have apprenticed with the Cincinnati daguerreotypist William S. Porter. While in Cincinnati he married Mary Ann Lundy (b. 1836), daughter of a Cincinnati pen maker. On 1857 their first child, Andrew S. Lytle, was born.

Lytle traveled through Alabama, Georgia, and Tennessee as an itinerant photographer during the years 1854 and 1856 while maintaining his home in Cincinnati. The first mention of Lytle in Baton Rouge appears in the Baton Rouge Daily Gazette & Comet on 18 December 1858. The item announced “the World Renowned Artists LYTLE & GIBSON, have arrived in our city.” In April and May 1859, Lytle & Gibson advertised their imminent departure for a summer tour of Mississippi.

By November 1859 Gibson’s name no longer appeared in connection with Lytle. That same month Lytle announced in the Daily Gazette & Comet that he had established a studio on Main Street across from the Harney House hotel. He would operate out of this location for the next fifty years.

As the 1855 map demonstrates, Baton Rouge fronted directly on the Mississippi River. Lytle, almost always referred to as “A.D.,” took the photograph displayed on the right from the west bank of the Mississippi, circa 1860. Notice the river comes nearly to the front doors of the shops, there is no levee, and what we now call the Old State Capitol lies at the far right-hand edge of the photograph.

The riverfront shopping district persisted for decades. Over twenty years after A.D. took the photograph, LSU cadet Robert Nicholls Sims, writing in his diary in the 1880s, referred to going down to the river for eggs.

Build Up To and Occupation by Union Forces

In 1862, the Civil War came to Baton Rouge bringing enormous change in A.D.’s life. Less than two years after the Lytles finally settled in Baton Rouge and only eighteen days after the birth of their second son, William Lundy Lytle (b. 11 April 1862), Union forces captured New Orleans. Baton Rouge expected Union forces at any moment. Some of those forces arrived on warships like the U.S.S. Choctaw, seen in the picture above as A.D. saw it from the riverfront.

Both Union and Confederate factions did their best to gain support for their causes. The songs The Southern Wagon and We Are the Union put new words to popular tunes of the day. A printed form letter signed by Tom Bynum, W. D. Phillips, and D.C. Montan took a more direct approach.

The Civil War Diary of Sarah Morgan, an extraordinary work based on the 19-year-old native Baton Rougean’s personal diary, provides insights into the social and intellectual life of Baton Rouge and Louisiana during the early years of the War. The following excerpts reveal the mood surrounding events leading up to the occupation of Baton Rouge:

26 April 1862: “There is no word in the English language which can express the state in which we are all now, and have been for the last three days. Day before yesterday news came early in the morning of three of the enemy’s boats passing the forts [guarding the Mississippi River below New Orleans]…. We went this morning to see the cotton burning….”

5 May 1862: “Vile old Yankee boats… passed up this morning without stopping! … The river was covered with burning cotton; perhaps they want to see where it came from.”

9 May 1862: “Our lawful (?) owners have at last arrived. About sunset day before yesterday, the Iroquois anchored here, and a graceful young Federal stepped ashore, carrying a Yankee flag over his shoulder, and asked the way to the Mayor’s office.”

Occupation, Battle, and Aftermath

Baton Rouge fell to Union forces 9 May 1862. In an effort to win back the city, Confederate forces attacked Baton Rouge on 5 August 1862. General Thomas Williams, Union commander, died in the attack but Baton Rouge remained in Union hands. General Williams’ replacement, Colonel Halbert E. Paine, had defense works built against renewed attacks. Ordered to create a clear field of fire, Union forces burned the buildings in front of the defensive line resulting in the loss of up to one-third of the structures in town. Sarah Morgan made the following entries in her diary:

12 August 1862: “I feel like a homeless beggar. Will P. told them here, that he doubted if our house were still standing, as the fight occurred just back of it, and every volley directed toward it.”

17 August 1862: “Thursday we heard from a lady just from town, that our house was probably standing the day before … but yesterday comes the tidings of new afflictions…. The Yankees, fearing the Confederates might slip in unseen … put the torch to all eastward…. For several days the fire has been burning, but very little can be learned.”

Before Union forces captured Baton Rouge on 9 May 1862, A. D. stayed busy in his Main Street studio creating portraits of Confederate soldiers. Colonel Randal Lee Gibson stood for A. D. early in the war. Unfortunately, few of Lytle’s Confederate portraits are known to survive.

After the capture, Lytle’s business remained steady as members of the Union occupation force came by to have portraits made for their friends and families in the North. An unidentified Union soldier shows a different face of the war.

Another Union soldier stationed in Baton Rouge, Lt. Daniel Dewey Perkins, expressed his feelings in letters home, which were published in a memorial volume after his death in the Battle of the Teche, 14 April 1863. Lt. Daniel Perkins Dewey wrote in Christmas, 1862:

“Here I am away down in Louisiana, my first Christmas from home…. It is saddening to go through this town, formerly a flourishing place, but now half burnt, with great black ruins standing everywhere…. The people creep about as if half scared to death…. People at the North can not begin to understand the reality of this war, but at the South it is brought home to them with terrible reality….”

Union forces waited in camp preparing for the attack on Port Hudson, up river from Baton Rouge. As the 1863 issue of The New York Daily Tribune demonstrates, readers in the North eagerly awaited word of the battle.

Peace and Society

After the war, Baton Rouge society turned to rebuilding the routines of peacetime under reconstruction. For Mary and A.D. this time also brought the death of their second son on 12 May 1868. The couple would not remain childless for long. Howard Lytle, born on 30 May 1870, and Ethel Lytle, born on 03 November 1871, would grow to adulthood, marry, and have children of their own.

Stage plays and other social events provided entertainment for the community while often expressing patriotic, religious, and social themes and ideals. A.D. and his family actively took part in many of these events. A.D.’s daughter Ethel, standing in this image taken sometime in the late 1880s, appears in costume.

A.D. Lytle and his son Howard joined the Order of the Knights of Pythias, a fraternal organization that had been founded in Washington, D.C., 19 February 1864. Howard also joined the Dramatic Order of Knights of Khorassan, a suborder of the Pythians dedicated to staging plays demonstrating, among other things, the ideals of the Order.

At the same time, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, established in America on 16 February 1868, played a large role in entertainment for Baton Rouge. Costumed Elks paraded the streets of Baton Rouge in the late 1800s. In November 1900, the Elks opened their new theater and office building on the corner of Third and Florida presenting Hall Caine’s stage production “The Christian.”

Howard and Ethel Lytle acted in many of these stage productions. A.D. photographed the actors in his studio and on the street. He also photographed the new Elks Theater for the Elks Souvenir book, 1901, and painted backdrops, scenery, and props for the theater.

Other organizations, such as the Baton Rouge German Benevolent Association, held annual events and entertainments. A young lady attending the ball would have carried a dance card like the one shown here. Young men desiring a dance would have penciled in their names for individual dances.

Louisiana State Penitentiary

As the 1855 map of Baton Rouge shows, the State Penitentiary occupied the geographic center of Baton Rouge. In the 19th century and early 20th centuries the prison provided labor for construction projects around the state, particularly levee construction along the banks of Louisiana’s many waterways.

In April 1890, Andrew reached his 56th birthday. His son, Howard, had joined him in business in the late 1880s to form “Lytle Studio” and, perhaps, take over the difficult business of outdoor photography. A.D. remained in the studio where he did not need to carry bulky, heavy cameras and tripods from site to site.

In the early 1890s A.D.’s daughter, Ethel, married Don B. Hearin, a levee contractor. Within ten years, the Lytle Studio had begun photographing levee construction sites. While no direct evidence has turned up yet, it is entirely possible that Lytle Studio photographed these sites, in part, because A.D.’s son-in-law held the contract to construct the levee.

On the other hand, the Louisiana State Penitentiary, sited just east of the downtown residential districts, provided the Lytles an additional source of income as photographers. The image on the right, captured in the prison kitchen, demonstrates the skill of A.D. or Howard. It also gives the viewer insight into the photographer’s thoughts.

The “ghost” in the image is not an apparition of a dead inmate but the partial image of a living man. Exposure times for images in the late 1900s could be rather long. The prisoner remained in front of the camera long enough to register partially on the film’s silver salts. Moving before his image completely obscured the window and wall behind him resulted in an eerily surreal photograph. The photographer had to have known removing the subject midway through exposure would produce this effect. We are left to wonder why he would have wanted to produce such an image.

The Penitentiary provided a good living to S.L. James, Jr., who held the Penitentiary commission for decades. His receipt for $30.00 to I.S. Osborne for capturing an escaped prisoner is the equivalent of a month’s wage for a laborer.

The letter to Governor Kellogg is a plea for clemency to the Governor. Samuel Wilson, convicted of murder at age nine, had served three years of his life sentence when a committee of citizens pled for leniency on Wilson’s behalf.

The letter to Aunt Nevie mentions that a cyclone blew down part of the Penitentiary, killing 10 convicts.

The Volunteer Fire Companies

Fire is a constant danger in towns whose buildings are constructed primarily of wood and packed together in a town center. Baton Rouge was no exception. By 1825, the town organized a volunteer fire fighting unit called The Bucket Company. The company’s name tells how they fought fires – by bucket brigade. Eleven years later the Bucket Company evolved into the more highly organized Washington Fire Company Number One.

The Washington Fire Company No. 1 enjoyed a long and useful firefighting life. All structures within Baton Rouge came under their protection, including the State Penitentiary, as the Company minute book demonstrates. In this case, “On Monday 2nd June [1856] a fire broke out in the State Penitentiary and raged with a great deal of fury . . . . The Fire Companies were promptly on the spot and rendered very efficient service.” While the Washington Fire Company may have been prompt and efficient fighting fires, their record keeping required fairly frequent revision. This log entry has two corrections, “last” penciled through with “1856” added above and “26 May last” struck through with “2nd June 1856″ penciled in above.

As Baton Rouge grew over time, more fire companies had to be organized to maintain efficient service in a growing town. The Independence Fire Company organized shortly after the Washington Fire Company No. 1. The Pelican Hook and Ladder Company organized in 1873 and after three years received their incorporation papers. Their Charter provides details of the fire company’s operations and a list of members, regular and honorary. A.D. was an honorary member of this Company. Howard Lytle joined and eventually became chief of the Washington Fire Company No. 3, established in 1884. In 1889 the Schloss Fire Company also began serving the people of Baton Rouge.

The volunteer fire companies of Baton Rouge not only protected the city from fires but also afforded its members an active social life. The companies organized or jointly sponsored balls, festivals, excursions, and parades throughout the year. The outstanding social event of the winter social season in Baton Rouge centered around an event jointly sponsored by all the fire companies. In commemoration of Washington’s Birthday, nearly every February 22nd from 1873 through 1916, Baton Rouge fire companies decorated their fire equipment, usually around an aquatic theme, and paraded through town.

All sorts of vehicles became decorated floats for the Firemen’s Parade. The small buggy on the right, carrying two children, has been decorated down to the horse’s bridle. Notice the butterfly on the horse’s back and the bird holding the butterfly’s reins. By the 1890s the long-standing friendly rivalry between the companies to see which would produce the best decorations took on new vigor when local merchants offered a $50.00 cash prize for first place. It wasn’t long before the prize money grew to $150.00 for first place, $100.00 for second place, and $75.00 for third place. The Washington Number 1 Company recieved first place for their floats in 1894, 1897, and 1900.

The Growth and Change of Louisiana State University

Louisiana State University evolved over time from a small seminary and military academy in north central Louisiana to an aspiring university situated near the state capitol. The image on the left shows cadets on parade at the third home of LSU, the Pentagon Barracks and Arsenal grounds near downtown Baton Rouge. The churches lining Fourth Street appear in the background.

The military nature of education at LSU in the 19th and early 20th centuries can be seen in this image of the staff under the Commandant of Cadets. The quality of the education offered, as well as the discipline, has been a point of pride for the University for well over a century, as the November 1872 issue of The Reveille demonstrates.

Of course, for students it wasn’t all drill and study. The “Commencement ‘Hop'” dance card from 1871 gives a good indication that dances still occupied some of the student’s time. Robert Nicholls Sims, Jr., a cadet, kept a diary during the winter of 1885 – 86, in which he often notes having other cadets to his rooms for “chocolate,” mentions going to the river for groceries, and talks about a Firemen’s dance and entertainment.

Both Howard Lytle and his son, Andrew David Lytle, Jr., attended LSU. Howard became a member of Kappa Sigma fraternity. His son also joined the fraternity, played on various sports teams, and became quite popular on campus. When he died of typhus on 15 November 1911 at the age of 19, LSU closed for the day in his memory. He attended LSU for two years before his death. The portrait on the right shows him in uniform around the time of his death.

A.D. Lytle, Jr.’s death hit his grandfather particularly hard. A.D. had already experienced the deaths of his first two children and lost his wife Mary (d 19 February 1898) after more than forty years of marriage. A.D. would celebrate his seventy-seventh birthday a few months after his grandson’s passing.

The Family Lytle: Faces to the Light

A.D. and Mary Ann Lundy Lytle, married on June 20th, 1855, lost their first child during his second year and their second child during his sixth year. Their third child, Howard, lived into adulthood, as did their fourth and last child, Ethel.

Mary Lytle, the daughter of a Cincinnati pen maker, met and married A.D. in Ohio. In the early years of their married life A.D., working as an itinerant photographer, would leave for extended tours in other states. Mary lived with A.D. in Baton Rouge from at least 1860 until 1898 when she died at 62 years of age.

Howard Lytle married Lillie Dickenson on January 1889. Their eldest child, Andrew David Lytle, Jr., died in 1911. Their second and last child, Mamie Sue Lytle, lived into maturity.

Ethel Lytle married Don B. Hearin, a levee contractor. Their three children, Lytle Don Hearin, Ethel Hearin, and Don Bussy Hearin, lived to adulthood.

The five images below give us a chance, at least to some small degree, to see the extended family of Andrew and Mary Lytle. Most of the family members in these pictures played many roles in the social life of Baton Rouge at the close of the 19th century. Other images in this web exhibition include other members of the family.

The Family Lytle: Place in Society

Sometime between 1901 and 1903, a few years after the death of Mary Lytle, A.D. set his camera equipment outside the family home, called out everyone who could come out, and captured a few images of the family. In this photograph, A.D. sits at the far right on a chair, holding one of three family dogs in place. A.D. Lytle, Jr., his grandson and namesake, sits between his grandfather and father. Howard’s daughter, Mary Sue, sits behind her father and in front of her mother, Lillie. The woman sitting beside Lillie is Elizabeth Lindis, who came to live in the Lytle household at age 15. She stayed with them until her death at age 76.

Both A.D. and Howard continued to take very active roles in church and fraternal organizations, particularly the Knights of Pythias. Even in the closing years of their lives both maintained their presence at the lodge house and at conventions held around the nation.

The year before and the year of his death, Howard continued his participation in the Knights. The year after Howard’s son A.D. Jr. died of typhus, either or both Howard and A.D. Sr. went to Denver for the Knights of Pythias annual convention, as the convention badges at the bottom imply. A few years after that, Howard died of tuberculosis at the age of 46 on August 11th, 1915, a few months after attending the conference in Shreveport.

Death and Afterlife

Shortly before his death, A.D. sat for this portrait. Over eighty years old, widowed nineteen years before, having outlived three sons and his namesake grandson, Lytle spent his last years with his daughter and surviving grandchildren.

Well-known in Baton Rouge, his work remained relatively unknown outside the city until 1911, when the publication of the ten-volume Photographic History of the Civil War brought his name and photographs before the nation. Lytle had sold his glass plate negatives of Baton Rouge during the Civil War to an agent of the publisher. A great number of other glass plates remained in his home, unused and gathering dust.

Andrew David Lytle, Sr., died on 8 June 1917. The nation was embroiled in the First World War; photography no longer required bulky, heavy equipment and years of experience to capture an image; the “snapshot” replaced professional photographers; life moved on.

Late in her life, a granddaughter of Lytle told a haunting story of a childhood memory. A few years after the photographer’s death, with family members watching, A.D.’s daughter took many of his remaining glass plate negatives to the well behind the family home and threw them down the dark shaft, laughing at the sound of her father’s life’s work, his eye of silver, crashing into oblivion.

After A.D. died, his work fell into obscurity. However, a new picture of the man began to form and take on mythic proportions, a myth of mystery and intrigue. For the 1892 edition of Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Louisiana, a “vanity” publication in which individuals wrote their own biographical sketch for publication, Lytle wrote, “in the progress of the conflict [the Civil War] he attached himself to the Confederate Signal service, with which he was connected at the fall of Port Hudson.” In 1911, when contacted by the publisher’s agent from New York, Andrew’s son Howard embellished the story to include his father’s active participation in spy operations, signaling from high points around town to his co-conspirators, and smuggling photographic chemicals through enemy lines. Over the next sixty years the story grew, took on new vigor, and passed into the realm of fantasy.

Historical evidence suggests the Confederate forces at Port Hudson had a loosely organized information gathering network but no “spy” agency. Most of the information passed between lines verbally, as official orders of the day record. Photographic chemicals openly passed from North to South under official orders from Washington, occasionally with President Lincoln’s signature. Further research may reveal some factual evidence of Lytle’s activities, but current research indicates he had no need to smuggle, no one to pass photographs to.

Equipment and Process

The cameras that Lytle had to work with in the course of his career were bulky, heavy, and required specialized knowledge to operate. There were no “point-and-shoot” cameras until the late 1880s and even then few people could afford them. Almost all photographic images before then were created by professional photographers.

When a photograph was made, the image fell on a glass plate negative that had been prepared using the wet-plate collodion process, which not only required special knowledge but timely action. The plate had to be prepared, exposed, and developed while the collodion remained wet.

Photographic collodion is a mixture of raw cotton treated with nitric and sulfuric acids and then dissolved in ether and alcohol, with a little iodide and bromide mixed in. The solution is transparent and sticks to nearly everything. To make photographs using this wet-plate collodion process, the photographer:

  1. Pours the collodion onto a glass plate and then tilts the plate to evenly coat the entire surface with the solution. Any excess collodion is poured back into its bottle.
  2. Moves into the darkroom (or, if in the field, the dark tent). While the plate is still wet, he dips it into a solution containing silver nitrate. The silver nitrate binds with the iodide and bromide to make a silver halide coating, which is sensitive to light. Excess silver nitrate solution is wiped off the back of the plate with a clean cloth.
  3. Inserts the still-wet plate into a lightproof holder, takes the holder to the camera and inserts it. The silver nitrate solution often drips from the holder even when in the camera. The photographer then removes a slide in the holder that covers the glass plate, making the collodion plate ready for exposure.
  4. Removes the lens cap and exposes the plate by allowing light to enter the camera and strike the light-sensitive collodion. Plate exposure times range from 20 seconds to five minutes.
  5. Replaces the lens cap to end the exposure.
  6. Reinserts the holder’s slide so that the holder can be removed from the camera without further exposing the plate and takes the holder back to the darkroom or dark tent.
  7. Removes the glass plate from the holder, and while holding the plate over a tray, pours developer over the plate. The developer is a solution of iron sulfate and acetic acid. It turns the silver-halide grains that have been struck by light into metallic silver. The glass plate is rinsed with water to remove the developer. At this point, the plate can be taken from the dark room.

If Lytle went into the field to shoot, he had to bring not only the camera and tripod but also a portable darkroom (or a fast horse to get the plate back to town before it dried out). Exposure times were relatively long and the slightest movement by the subject or the camera meant a wasted shot.

Very few glass plate negatives made by Lytle have survived. Photographic prints of the images on these plates have been created from a modern internegative, which is more stable and robust than the original glass plate negative. To help protect the original glass plates that do survive, any future prints will be made from the internegative rather than the glass plate.

Andrew D. Lytle’s Photo Gallery

Early Baton Rouge and the Civil War

no images were found

Baton Rouge at Peace

no images were found

The Importance of Agriculture

no images were found

Troubled Times

no images were found

Good Times

no images were found

Progress

Nature

Acknowledgements

The curator wishes to thank the following people for their assistance in mounting this exhibition:

Marta S. Barillas, Graduate Assistant, for her excellent work in translating the physical exhibition into this online exhibition;

Elaine Smyth, Curator of Special Collections, for taking time from her busy schedule to shepherd this new curator through the process.

Margaret “Sissy” Albertine, darkroom alchemist, for making excellent prints from often difficult negatives. The quality of her work helps us see the intent of the original artist and made it possible to create good digital surrogates.

The curator also wishes to thank the following institutions and individuals for their research assistance: The Cincinnati Historical Society; The Ohio Historical Society; The Louisiana Art and Science Museum; St. James Episcopal Church; Clerk of Court, East Baton Rouge Parish; Richard Albertine; Charles East; my coworkers in the Special Collections Reading Room.

Bibliography and Further Readings

The following sources were used in the preparation of this exhibition:

Carleton, Mark T. River Capital. Woodland Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, Inc., 1981. Louisiana State University, Middleton Library, F 379 B33 C35, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

East, Charles, ed. The Civil War Diary of Sarah Morgan. Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1991. Louisiana State University, Middleton Library, E605 D28 1991, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

East, Charles Baton Rouge: A Civil War Album. [Baton Rouge]: East, c1977. Louisiana State University, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana Collection F 379 B33 E28, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

East, Charles. “A Yankee in Dixie: Baton Rouge Photographer A. D. Lytle.” In Touched By Fire: A Photographic Portrait of the Civil War, Volume One, ed. William C. Davis, 195-232. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1985. Louisiana State University, Hill Memorial Library, E 468.7 T68 1985 v. 1, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Lloyd, Caroline. “A memorial of Lt. Daniel Perkins Dewey, of the Twenty-fifth Regiment, Connecticut Volunteers.” Hartford: Press of Case, Lockwood & Company, 1864. Louisiana State University, Hill Memorial Library, La Coll Rare E 601 D51, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Stevens, William B. History of the Fiftieth Regiment of Infantry, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, in the late War of the Rebellion. Boston: Griffith-Stillings Press, 1907. Louisiana State University, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana Collection E 513.5 50th S74, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Chabot, Andree. “Magnolia Cemetery: Recommendations for Renovation and Preservation.” Report in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Degree of Bachelor of Landscape Architecture, Louisiana State University, 1988. Louisiana State University, Design Building, Design Resource Center SB 469.22 1988 C48, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.

Hahn, Thurston H. G., III, Archaeological Investigations at the United Confederate Veterans Association Plot, Historical Magnolia Cemetery, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Coastal Environments, Inc., 1992. Louisiana State University, Hill Memorial Library, Louisiana Collection F 379 B33 H225 1992, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.